an area of 1,648,000 square kilometers, Islamic
republic of Iran is a wide country located in southwest of
neighboring the Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia in the
north; Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east; and Turkey and Iraq in the
west. All southern borders of the country ends to the shores of the
Persian Gulf and sea of Oman.
terrestrial borders of the country are 5,170 km. And total water borders
in the north and south are 2,510 km.
is situated in the heart of Middle- East and, as a bridge, links the
Caspian sea, the most beautiful land-locked and the largest body of water
in the world, to the Persian Gulf, and also, it is a crossroads on the way
of East to West, i. e. the junction of cultural, intellectual and political
manifestations of the worlds of East and west.
water springs, pomegranate orchards, pistachio gardens, rows of Lombardy
poplars, decampment of nomads in different seasons, stelliferous nights,
rocks, mountains, endless high and low lands, snow-clad extinct volcanoes,
luxuriant forests of Alborz mountain range, and coastlines of the Caspian
Sea are amongst the eye-catching and memorable landscapes of Iranís
nature which leave unique memoirs in the minds of tourists.
visage of Iranís plain and savanna is changeable in different times,
sometimes full of stone and sand, sometimes full of floodwater, sometimes
snow-clad or covered by luxuriant vegetation. Iranian artists have always
portrayed nature as a symbol and sign of existence of beauty in their
different and diverse artistic works. Iranians always valued water as a
sign of life and development. There flow uncountable permanent brooks in
meadows, gardens, orchards, homes, mosques and sacred places that irrigate
so many trees.
and vastness of Iran are the most valuable parameters for development of
tourism industry. Among millions of hectares of terrestrial land in Iran,
19 million hectares are covered by orchards,
gardens and farmlands; 10 million hectares are plain pastures; 19
million hectares are forests; and the remaining include barren lands,
desert, and mountains.
significant characteristics of vast land of Iran, which is very important
from tourism point of view, is the existence of high mountains, flat
plains, desert areas, different rivers and lakes which all together have
caused a unique geographical condition in which, in winter swimming and
water skiing are possible in warm waters of the Persian Gulf and, at the
same time, winter sports like skiing are possible in the northern and
western mountains of the country, simultaneously enjoying the pleasant
spring weather in several cities at the shores of the Caspian sea.
high Alborz Mountains, sealing off the narrow Caspian strip, is covered
with luxuriant forests and lush vegetation.
parts of the coastline of the Persian Gulf in the south are rocky and
mountainous and some parts are sandy and swampy, so are not as monotonous
as northern shores of the country. The southern provinces of Iran,
especially Khuzestan, which encompass some parts of vast Mesopotamia
(between two rivers) plain, are very flat with low altitude. If
a tourist walks in the northern or western mountains of Iran, he/she will
be able to see so many eye-catching views and many towns, Villages,
orchards, gardens and meadows under his/her feet with amazing landscape.
high elevation of plateau of Iran from the sea level and situating of the
most provinces on the altitudes more than 1,000m.,is another important
geographic feature of this land. The magnificent and high Alborz mountain
range at the north, Zagross mountain chain in the west and some Other
mountain chains, which extend from Khorasan to Baluchistan in the east,
Have surrounded the plateau of Iran. The most important summits of Iran
are: Damavand with the altitude of 5,671m. in east-north of Tehran;
Sabalan with the altitude of 4,880m. in the west of Ardebil; Sahand with
the altitude of 3,707 in the south of Tabriz; Takht-e- Solayman with the
altitude of 4,820m. in the center of Mazandaran; Zardkooh with the
altitude of 4,550m. in Bakhtiari; Dena with the altitude of 4,309m. in the
north of Yasouj; Taftan with the altitude of 3,941m.in the south of
Zahedan; and tens of other summits which are scattered all around Iran.
and diversion of geological and calcareous structure have caused formation
of so many caves in different provinces especially in Azerbaijani;
Kurdistan, and Hamedan which are paid attention by numerous tourists who
come to Iran in order to visit them. The inside landscapes of these caves
are amongst important tourism attractions and are continuously visited by
local and foreign tourists.
mountains of Iran belong to the folding of Cenozoic period and some of
them, with volcanic origin, have brought about the means of appearance of
thermal springs. The mountains of Iran have caused suitable condition for
winter and mountain sports. The famous deserts of Iran, including Dasht-
e- Lout and Dasht- e- Kavir, covering an area of more than 360,000 square
kilometers, are amongst the interesting yet unknown places. Having more
than 500 known mineral waters and thermal springs, which are used for
different purposes, Iran has one of the most important sources for tourism
income. Most of these springs are located in Alborz mountain range;
Azerbaijan and Zagross Mountains and some are located close to Isfahan,
Meshed and Bandar Abbas. The thermal springs of Sarain (Ardebil), Larijan
at the slopes of Alborz, and also Mahallat attract many people for
recreation and therapeutic purposes. In the southern coasts of the Caspian
Sea, there are many wide and luxuriant regions with mountain slopes
covered with dense forests. The coasts of the Caspian Sea, with pleasant
sandy beaches, are amongst the most beautiful tourism centers in Iran.
Moreover, the southern shores and islands of Iran have their own natural
and tourism attraction especially in winters. The slopes of Alborz and
Zagross as well as riverbeds are the sources of numerous springs, lakes,
and wetlands each of them, with its own beautiful and eye-catching
landscape attracts tourists.
of Iran enjoys a relatively dry climate. Iran is situated in the global
arid belt and Alborz and Zagross mountain chains trap the humidity and air
currents of the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean preventing their penetration
to the inner parts. Country of Iran, due to being located between 25 and
40-degree altitude and also existence of heights, enjoys considerable
changeable climate. The average annual temperature increases from
northwest to southeast of the country and varies from 10 degree centigrade
in Azerbaijan to 25-30 degree centigrade in the south and southeast. The
northern and southern shores of Iran, in different seasons, have diverse
climate compared with central and mountainous regions. The average annual
temperature of Bandar Abbas in the south of Iran in January is 18.5 degree
Centigrade. Difference of average annual rainfall is also very high in
different parts of the country. The amplitude of these changes varies from
2,000mm. In Gilan to less than 100 mm. In central parts of Iran. Average
annual precipitation in Iran is 275mm.
enjoys a considerable climatic diversity, which is subjected to various
seasons in different parts of the country, in a way that in some areas,
the coldness of winter and the warmth of summer can be seen
simultaneously. Thus the weather in Iran must be judged regionally.
January and February, there are three climatic zones in Iran. Shores of
the Caspian Sea having mild and relatively cold weather, central parts
with winter weather, and southern parts that enjoy moderate and pleasant
weather. The whole Iran enjoys a pleasant weather in spring, especially in
June. But the weather in southern parts grows very hot unexpectedly. The
climatic condition of the country becomes complicated in summers. Due to
high humidity, the weather of the coastal parts of the Caspian Sea changes
in summers. During the days it is hot, but it is relatively cool at
nights. In southern coastlines of Iran, the days are very hot and the
nights are relatively warm with very high humidity, which is intolerable
by non-natives. The cities of Shiraz, Isfahan, Meshed, Tehran and Tabriz,
which are the main tourism centers of
Iran, enjoy different climate.
Shiraz with four months of warmth is in the first place and Tabriz with
only one month of warmth is in the last place. Azerbaijan, Kurdistan,
Hamedan and Khorasan provinces are famous as cool places in the summer.
entire north of the Country, especially countryside of Alborz slopes like
noor vally, Kelardasht, and Katalem, as well as Azerbaijan, Khorasan and
central regions of Zagross mountains-between Tooyserkan and Golpayegan are
very suitable for spending of week-ends and holidays by domestic as well
as foreign tourists in summers. Tourists may use the southern regions of
Iran, regarding their different parts, 5-6 months of the year especially
foreign tourists, who go to the southern coasts of Iran in winters, face a
very pleasant weather; while at the same time the cities of Isfahan and
Fars provinces are rainy and snowy with a very cold weather. In summers,
the weather in the most part of the country is warm but not intolerable.
Spring and autumn, especially Nowrooz holidays (Iranian new year beginning
from March 21st) are suitable time for touring all around the country.